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22 Meter

Arabian Dhow

70' Length On Deck

70' Sambuk or Baghala Dhow - Kasten Marine Design, Inc.
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Perspective Forward | Perspective Aft | Perspective Above Aft | Side Perspective | Side Perspective with Grid Lines

Copyright 2012 - 2014 Michael Kasten

The Dhow in History

The 22 meter vessel shown here is modeled after the traditional Arabian Dhow, most closely resembling the Baghala type. The most traditional rig for this kind of vessel is the Lateen rig (triangular sails) or the Settee rig (trapezoidally shaped sails). Both of these are able to sail down wind like a square rig, but they are also able to sail well to windward and tack into the wind like a fore and aft rigged craft.

Most seem to attribute the origins of the Dhow to India, where it appears they were ordinarily built close to the supply of wood. Originally Dhows and other craft in the region were built using stitched-together planks, and on some smaller local craft that kind of construction can still be found.

The Dhow was developed over many centuries as a trading vessel, carrying cargo east as far as China by way of Sri Lanka and the Straits of Malacca, bringing goods to and from Alexandria via the Red Sea, thus connecting the Roman Empire with the Han Dynasty in China. The Arab trade routes also extended south to Zanzibar in Africa. Some sources claim that the very earliest craft were trading along similar coastal routes in the Indian Ocean as early as 3,000 B.C. These craft eventually developed into the Dhow as we know it today.

With the triangular Lateen sail, the Dhow could out-sail the square rigged craft of the Mediterranean, and better navigate the contrary winds of the Red Sea. With knowledge of navigating by the stars passed down from the Egyptians, the use of the magnetic compass learned from the Chinese, and the stern mounted rudder of the Chinese Junks, the Dhow was well equipped to dominate the Indian Ocean trade routes during the last 2,000 years.

Thus, the Arab merchants must be given due credit, having made longer voyages than Columbus nearly fifteen hundred years before Columbus sailed toward the new world.

The features that distinguish the Dhow are its Lateen or Settee rig, and typically a double ended hull form. Other features that have come to characterize the Dhow are the long raked bow, and the high and relatively upright stern. In some forms such as the Baghala, and the Shuw'i (or Shu Ai) the stern was widened into a massive wide transom often carried right down to the waterline. In other types, the hull was more or less double ended, but often a platform extended over the stern, much like the Indonesian sailing Pinisi (which seems to have been derived from the Dhow in terms of its hull form and structure).
 

70' Sambuk or Baghala / Dhow - Kasten Marine Design, Inc.
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The Dhow as a Yacht

The sailing Dhow that I've shown here has been created with a new purpose... that of being a spacious and comfortable private yacht. Thus, in the model shown here, we have struck a good compromise so that while we do have a transom, we also have a fully double ended hull shape at the waterline... i.e. the best of both types. As such, this design most closely resembles the type of Dhow called the Baghala.

The stern has ample width, and is tucked up high to stay out of trouble in a following sea. The aft deck extends beyond the lower transom just enough to house the rudder head, so that a tiller or wheel can be arranged easily. It seems fairly common among traditional dhow types to have a slightly rounded stem, which when finished off with the high curved stem timber seems to resemble a scimitar…! Balanced with “davit” boards that extend from the stern, I think the concept design shown here is quite nice.

In terms of its structure, the Dhow is very much the same as the Indonesian sailing Pinisi types, which are outlined on our Pinisi History web page.

If tradition is to be followed faithfully, the rig for this vessel should be designed in keeping with a typical sailing Dhow, in other words having a Lateen or Settee type of rig.

Many drawings of traditional sailing Dhows show the Lateen / Settee rig with a tilted trapezoidally shaped topsail above the main sail. It is not such a far stretch then to imagine there being a few more yards in between, with a single sail arranged in panels between the yards, thus becoming essentially a junk sail having the rakish look and sailing qualities of the lateen rig… For this design, two masts arranged this way would work out very well.

An alternate way to arrange the traditional Lateen / Settee rig in order to avoid having to dip the yard for tacking would be to arrange the masts as "A" frames, with the yard hung just below the apex. Under sail, the look and functionality would be exactly that of the Arabian Dhow, but without the need to dip the yard in order to tack.  This would not allow the sails to be squared off for direct downwind sailing, but would permit a nicely setting sail for windward sailing, reaching and broad reaching...
 

70' Sambuk or Baghala Dhow - Kasten Marine Design, Inc.
Click for Larger Image

Particulars

The Interior Layout

At 22 meters of length over the range of the deck, the design is perfect for a couple to live permanently aboard, and to also accommodate four guests in two separate suites. With that, the interior layout is not at all crowded.
 

70' Sambuk or Baghala Dhow - Kasten Marine Design, Inc.
Click for Larger Image

To best understand the vessel's interior options, the following walk-through should clarify the intended layout ...

More Information...

An interesting article on our work with the wooden vessels of Indonesia appeared in the New York Times, called The Traditional Pinisi - And Then Some.  For a taste of what is possible with these craft, please see our Dunia Baru web page where you will find excellent as-built images.

If this or a similar traditional sailing yacht is of interest, we offer a complete design service from concept to launch. Our preference is to use traditional methods and styling to the maximum extent possible; to design the structure to classification society standards; and to assure that stability and sea keeping are up to IMO standards for worldwide travel. We can accommodate a variety of requests, for example to change the size, to alter the styling, or to modify the layout as needed.

For complete information about our work with these vessels please see the following links, or for more information please inquire.
 

Our articles about building an Indonesian Pinisi or KLM:
Pinisi History  |  Pinisi Building  |  The Ultimate Charter Pinisi
Sailing vs. KLM Types  |  A Cargo Pinisi as a Yacht...?

Pinisi and KLM designs that we have created or have planned:
30m Pinisi, DATU BUA  |  36m Pinisi, SILOLONA
38m Pinisi, AMANDIRA  |  50m Sailing Pinisi

27m DIVE Charter KLM  |  30m Charter KLM  |  33m Charter KLM
36m KLM, DUNIA BARU  |  40m Charter KLM  |  50m Charter KLM

Descriptions of our adventures with these boats:
Silolona "Homecoming"  |  Indonesia Boatbuilding Images

Five Schooners and Two Arabian Dhows Suited to Building in Indonesia
17m Flores Privateer  |  20m Sulawesi Privateer  |  31m Komodo Privateer
36m Tern Schooner  |  36m Lombok Privateer  |  45m Kalimantan Privateer

22m Arabian Baghala  |  36m Arabian Baghala

Two junk rigged KLM types for construction in steel:
25m Lady Destiny  |  55m Lady Destiny